Served under Braddock in the French and Indian War. Lived in England (1764-72) before moving to western Virginia (now West Virginia). Became adjutant general in the Continental army (1775) and eventually rose to the rank of major general. Commander of American forces at Saratoga (1777) and at the disastrous battle of Camden, South Carolina (1780).
Thomas Conway led a group of conspirators including several members of Congress and attempted to replace Washington with Gates as commander-in-chief (1777).
Born Maldon, Essex, England. Married in 1754 to Elizabeth Phillips.