Teacher, politician, and cryptographer.
First orator to commemorate the Boston Massacre. Taken prisoner following the battle of Bunker Hill and sent to Halifax (1776). Freed in prisoner exchange (1776).
Served in Continental Congress (1777-82); member of the committee for foreign affairs.
Like Franklin, was annoyed at the multitude of Frenchman seeking commissions in the American military. Openly hostile towards Silas Deane and distrustful of Franklin. Some of his letters to Franklin were written in codes so incomprehensible and error-ridden that Franklin never deciphered them.
Following his resignation from Congress, he returned to Massachusetts, where he held a variety of public positions.
Born in Boston. Educated at Harvard. Married in 1760 to Mary Middleton.