Served a medical apprenticeship in Settle, Yorkshire (1772-73); studied medicine at Edinburgh (1773-75) and probably in London as well. Visited Paris, dined with American commissioners, and received financial assistance (January 1778). Crossed to England with Jonathan Loring Austin and offered to sell information to the British (February 1778). Returned to France and applied for an American commission (July 1778). Testified to U.S. Congress in May 1784 that he had been continuously employed as a military surgeon, in a Pennsylvania artillery regiment and later on the ships America and Alliance, since 1778.
Philadelphia Quaker; expelled from meeting for nonconformity (1770).