In his early years, was a student of his father, Jacques Caffiéri, and of Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne. Studied at the Academy of France at Rome (1749-54). Admitted to the Académie royale (1759) and named professor (1773). Regularly exhibited at the Salon (1757-89).
Primarily known for having sculpted a large number of busts of famous literary figures. His bust of Franklin and the monument to General Montgomery which the American Congress had commissioned him to sculpt were both exhibited at the Salon of 1777.
Actively engaged during the French Revolution in the preservation of monuments. Named garde de tout ce qui appartient à l’Académie relativement à tous morceaux d’art shortly before his death in 1792.