Entered navy (1735). Commander of the Lark (1748). Served in West Indies, Louisbourg campaign, and home ports. Naval commander-in-chief in the East Indies (1773); amassed a large fortune in India. Rear-admiral and Knight of the Bath (1778). Gained fame as the dogged if uninspired opponent of the brilliant French commander Bailli de Suffren in the naval campaign off India (1782-83). Admiral (1793).
Born at Hertford, England. Married Ruth Ball; no issue.