Came under Moravian influence and settled in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (1749). Worked variously as a tanner, ferryman, storekeeper, and Indian agent. Member of the Pennsylvania Assembly (1755, 1770-74). Franklin’s assistant and travel companion during his effort to organize the defense of Northampton County, Pennsylvania, in the Seven Years’ War (1755-56). Also acted as an intermediary between Franklin and Moravian bishop Augustus Spangenberg.
Born in Gloucestershire, England. Emigrated to New York in 1736. Married (1) Rebecca de Beauvoise, a Huguenot; she died in 1747. Married (2) Margaret Anthony (1755).