Student at the University of Göttingen (1735-38), ordained at Leipzig in 1739.
Arrived in Pennsylvania as Pastor of the United Lutheran congregation (1742). Played a significant role in the organization of the Lutheran Church in America. He taught and disciplined the congregations, built churches, and trained ministers. Organized the first convention of the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania, held in Philadelphia in 1748.
Resided in New Providence, but traveled widely and ministered to churches in New York from 1751 to 1752. In 1761, he relocated to Philadelphia, and returned to New Providence in 1776. Resigned as rector of St. Michael’s and Zion’s in Philadelphia (1779). Made a doctor of divinity by the University of Pennsylvania (1784).
Born at Einbeck, Hanover. Married in 1745 to Anna Maria Weiser, daughter of the Indian agent Conrad Weiser; eleven children. Father of John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg.