Journeyman in the London office of William Strahan, who sent him to work with Franklin in Philadelphia (1744).
Became Franklin’s foreman and, in 1748, his partner. Accused of favoring the Proprietary party by William Franklin.
Bought Franklin's interest in 1766 and continued to run the printing office until his death.
Born in Edinburgh. Married in 1748 to Mary Leacock; sons William (who corresponded with Franklin) and David, daughter Deborah.