Geographer and military engineer.
Served in the British military during the French and Indian War. Maintained his commission until 1780, when he resigned it after having been arrested for assisting the American cause.
Soon afterwards he went to France and swore an oath of allegiance to the United States before Franklin, who recommended him to Congress.
Appointed geographer to the United States (1781). Surveyed the boundary between New York and Massachusetts (1787).
Born in Monmouth County, New Jersey.