Colonel of the 48th British regiment in the Seven Years’ War.
Served under General Braddock and led retreat after army’s defeat at the Battle of Monongahela (July 1755). Clashed with Franklin, Pennsylvania Governor Robert Morris, and other colonists over quartering of troops and enlistment of indentured servants. Discredited in American and British press for hasty retreat, but honorably retired as lieutenant governor of Gibraltar. Major general (1758). Lieutenant general (1760).