American newspaper publisher.
Immigrated to New York (c. 1770) and apprenticed himself to James Holt. Served with distinction in the Revolutionary War but resigned (1779) when passed over for promotion. Published the Maryland Journal in partnership with William Goddard (1779-81). Removed to Philadelphia, where he published the Independent Gazetteer (1782-92). Supported Robert Morris and later the Anti- Federalists. Frequently accused of libel.
Fought a duel with Franklin’s protégé Mathew Carey (January 1786). Traveled to England (1792) and served briefly in the French Revolution; his wife continued to publish the Independent Gazetteer in his absence.
Born in Falmouth, England. Married Elizabeth, daughter of James Holt.