Worked as an innkeeper and deed recorder in Newcastle, Delaware, before the Revolution. Served on the British naval ships Roebuck, Scorpion, and Adamant, and as a clerk in the naval victualing office in New York, during the Revolutionary War. Invalided for rheumatism (January 1783). Settled in Britain and received £50 from the British government.
First letter in correspondence: April 1789; Sabine, Loyalists, i, 386; Palmer, Loyalists, pp. 233-4.